umgeher's changelog


The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto

From the Crypto ‘88 conference, 1988

A specter is haunting the modern world, the specter of crypto anarchy.

Computer technology is on the verge of providing the ability for individuals and groups to communicate and interact with each other in a totally anonymous manner. Two persons may exchange messages, conduct business, and negotiate electronic contracts without ever knowing the True Name, or legal identity, of the other. Interactions over networks will be untraceable, via extensive re-routing of encrypted packets and tamper-proof boxes which implement cryptographic protocols with nearly perfect assurance against any tampering. Reputations will be of central importance, far more important in dealings than even the credit ratings of today. These developments will alter completely the nature of government regulation, the ability to tax and control economic interactions, the ability to keep information secret, and will even alter the nature of trust and reputation.

The technology for this revolution–and it surely will be both a social and economic revolution–has existed in theory for the past decade. The methods are based upon public-key encryption, zero-knowledge interactive proof systems, and various software protocols for interaction, authentication, and verification. The focus has until now been on academic conferences in Europe and the U.S., conferences monitored closely by the National Security Agency. But only recently have computer networks and personal computers attained sufficient speed to make the ideas practically realizable. And the next ten years will bring enough additional speed to make the ideas economically feasible and essentially unstoppable. High-speed networks, ISDN, tamper-proof boxes, smart cards, satellites, Ku-band transmitters, multi-MIPS personal computers, and encryption chips now under development will be some of the enabling technologies.

The State will of course try to slow or halt the spread of this technology, citing national security concerns, use of the technology by drug dealers and tax evaders, and fears of societal disintegration. Many of these concerns will be valid; crypto anarchy will allow national secrets to be trade freely and will allow illicit and stolen materials to be traded. An anonymous computerized market will even make possible abhorrent markets for assassinations and extortion. Various criminal and foreign elements will be active users of CryptoNet. But this will not halt the spread of crypto anarchy.

Just as the technology of printing altered and reduced the power of medieval guilds and the social power structure, so too will cryptologic methods fundamentally alter the nature of corporations and of government interference in economic transactions. Combined with emerging information markets, crypto anarchy will create a liquid market for any and all material which can be put into words and pictures. And just as a seemingly minor invention like barbed wire made possible the fencing-off of vast ranches and farms, thus altering forever the concepts of land and property rights in the frontier West, so too will the seemingly minor discovery out of an arcane branch of mathematics come to be the wire clippers which dismantle the barbed wire around intellectual property.

Arise, you have nothing to lose but your barbed wire fences!

Timothy C. May -




  • Blade Runner
    • Blade Runner - A blade runner must pursue and terminate four replicants who stole a ship in space, and have returned to Earth to find their creator. 10/10 λ
    • Blade Runner 2049 - Young Blade Runner K’s discovery of a long-buried secret leads him to track down former Blade Runner Rick Deckard, who’s been missing for thirty years. 6.5/10 λ
  • The Matrix
    • The Matrix - When a beautiful stranger leads computer hacker Neo to a forbidding underworld, he discovers the shocking truth–the life he knows is the elaborate deception of an evil cyber-intelligence. 8/10 λ
    • The Matrix Reloaded - Freedom fighters Neo, Trinity and Morpheus continue to lead the revolt against the Machine Army, unleashing their arsenal of extraordinary skills and weaponry against the systematic forces of repression and exploitation. 4/10 λ
    • The Matrix Revolutions - The human city of Zion defends itself against the massive invasion of the machines as Neo fights to end the war at another front while also opposing the rogue Agent Smith. 2.5/10 λ
    • The Matrix Resurrections - Return to a world of two realities: one, everyday life; the other, what lies behind it. To find out if his reality is a construct, to truly know himself, Mr. Anderson will have to choose to follow the white rabbit once more. 2/10 λ


  • Escape from New York (1981)
  • Burst City (1982)
  • Tron (1982)
  • Brainstorm (1983)
  • Videodrome (1983)
  • “Repo Man” (1984)
  • The Terminator (1984)
  • Brazil (1985)
  • RoboCop (1987)
  • The Running Man (1987)
  • Gunhed (1989)
  • Circuitry Man (1990)
  • RoboCop 2 (1990)
  • Hardware (a.k.a. M.A.R.K. 13) (1990)
  • Megaville (1990)
  • Total Recall (1990)
  • Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)
  • 964 Pinocchio (1991)
  • Until the End of the World (1991)
  • Nemesis (1992)
  • Freejack (1992)
  • The Lawnmower Man (1992)
  • Cyborg 2 (1993)
  • Demolition Man (1993)
  • RoboCop 3 (1993)
  • Plughead Rewired: Circuitry Man II (1994)
  • Death Machine (1994)
  • Hackers (1995)
  • Johnny Mnemonic (1995)
  • Judge Dredd (1995)
  • Strange Days (1995)
  • Virtuosity (1995)
  • Escape from L.A. (1996)
  • The Lawnmower Man 2: Beyond Cyberspace (1996)
  • Deathline (a.k.a. Redline) (1997)
  • The Fifth Element (1997)
  • Nirvana (1997)
  • Andromedia (1998)
  • Pi (1998)
  • Skyggen (a.k.a. Webmaster) (1998)
  • Dark City (1998)
  • eXistenZ (1999)
  • The Thirteenth Floor (1999)
  • Bicentennial Man (1999)
  • I.K.U. (2000)
  • The 6th Day (2000)
  • Avalon (2001)
  • A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001)
  • Electric Dragon 80.000 V (2001)
  • Cypher (2002)
  • Dead or Alive: Final (2002)
  • Impostor (2002)
  • Minority Report (2002)
  • Resurrection of the Little Match Girl (2002)
  • All Tomorrow’s Parties (2003)
  • Code 46 (2003)
  • Natural City (2003)
  • Paycheck (2003)
  • Avatar (a.k.a. Cyber Wars) (2004)
  • Immortal (2004)
  • I, Robot (2004)
  • Paranoia 1.0 (a.k.a. One Point 0) (2004)
  • ├ćon Flux (2005)
  • Children of Men (2006)
  • Ultraviolet (2006)
  • Chrysalis (2007)
  • Eden Log (2007)
  • The Gene Generation (2007)
  • Babylon A.D. (2008)
  • Sleep Dealer (2008)
  • Tokyo Gore Police (2008)
  • District 9 (2009)
  • Hardwired (2009)
  • Surrogates (2009)
  • Tron: Legacy (2010)
  • Repo Men (2010)
  • Priest (2011)
  • Dredd (2012)
  • Elysium (2013)
  • The Zero Theorem (2013)
  • Automata (2014)
  • Transcendence (2014)
  • RoboCop (2014)
  • Chappie (2015)
  • Ex Machina (2015)
  • Hardcore Henry (2015)
  • Ghost in the Shell (2017)
  • Bleeding Steel (2017)
  • Ready Player One (2018)
  • Upgrade (2018)
  • Hotel Artemis (2018)
  • Anon (2018)
  • Alita: Battle Angel (2019)